English Language Arts Curriculum Maps

  • Pre-K Listening & Learning

    Quarter 1

    Domain 1:  All About Me

    Description: The Teacher Guide for All About Me contains a total of twenty days of instruction. These twenty days are divided into thirteen days of Skills and Listening & Learning activities, six Pausing Point days, and one day for Domain Assessments. The domain-specific Learning Center is the doctor's office. During the All About Me domain, students learn nursery rhymes and songs that have accompanying motions. Students are introduced to a variety of emergent literacy skills through child-friendly activities such as painting,coloring, singing, and gross motor movement. The All About Me domain includes five original read-alouds and three trade books that address the Core Content Objectives for this domain.

     

    Quarter 2

    Domain 2: Families & Communities

    Description: The Teacher Guide for Families and Communities contains a total of twenty days of instruction. These twenty days are divided into thirteen days of Skills and Listening & Learning activities, six Pausing Point days,and one day for Domain Assessments. The domain-specific Learning Center for the Families and domain is the House Dramatic Play Learning Center. During the Families and Communities domain, students learn nursery rhymes and songs that complement the content and skills taught in this domain. In the Families and Communities domain, students review and are introduced to a variety of emergent literacy skills through child-friendly activities such as playing musical instruments, saying rhymes, playing matching games, and blending words. This domain includes five original read-alouds and four trade books that address the Core Content Objectives for this domain.

     

     

    Quarter 3

    Domain 3: Animals

    Description: The Teacher Guide for Animals contains a total of twenty-one days of instruction. These twenty-one days are divided into fourteen days of Skills and Listening & Learning activities, six Pausing Point days, and one day for Domain Assessments. The domain-specific Learning Center for the Animals domain is the Animal Hospital Learning Center. The materials comprising the CKLA Preschool Animals domain are designed to teach young children appropriate nonfiction content about the animal kingdom. In addition to the information provided in this curriculum, it is vital that students also have opportunities for hands on learning about animals. In the Animals domain, students continue to practice a variety of emergent literacy skills through child-friendly activities such as playing rhyming games, sequencing pictures and telling stories, continuing to work in their My First Strokes Book, and solving riddles.

     

    Domain 4: Plants

    Description: The Teacher Guide for Plants contains a total of twenty-one days of instruction. These twenty-one days are divided into fourteen days of Skills and Listening & Learning activities, six Pausing Point days, and one day for Domain Assessments. The domain-specific Learning Center for the Plants domain is the Farm Stand Learning Center. The materials comprising the CKLA-Preschool Plants domain are designed to teach young children appropriate, nonfiction content about plants. In addition to the information provided in this curriculum, it is vital that students also have opportunities for hands-on learning about plants. In the Plants domain, students continue to learn sounds and letters as they practice a variety of emergent literacy skills through child-friendly activities such as playing games to practice phonological awareness, continuing to work in their My First Strokes Books, learning three new ‘sound pictures,’ and telling stories. The Plants domain includes five original read-alouds and three trade books that address the Core Content Objectives for this domain.

    Quarter 4

    Domain 4: Plants (Continued)

     

    Domain 5: Habitats

     

    The Teacher Guide for Habitats contains a total of twenty-one days of instruction. These twenty-one days are divided into fourteen days of Skills and Listening & Learning activities, six Pausing Point days, and one day for Domain Assessments. The materials comprising the CKLA Preschool Habitats domain are designed to teach young children appropriate, nonfiction content about habitats, the places where plants and animals live together. The domain-specific Learning Center for the Habitats domain is the Library Dramatic Play Center. In the Habitats domain, students continue to practice a variety of emergent literacy skills through child-friendly activities such as playing games like matching games, dictating stories, making a class book in the style of a familiar storybook, and learning four additional sounds and sound pictures. The Habitats domain includes five original read-alouds and three trade books that address the Core Content Objectives for this domain.

  • Kindergarten Listening & Learning

    Quarter 1

    Domain 1: Nursery Rhymes and Fables

    Description: This domain will introduce students to nursery rhymes and fables that have been favorites with children for generations. Students will learn classic rhymes like “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" and “Hickory, Dickory, Dock,” as well as classic characters such as Humpty Dumpty and Little Miss Muffet. Traditional poems help students learn vocabulary and build phonemic awareness. By listening carefully to nursery rhymes and repeating or reciting them by heart, students develop an awareness of language that will help them become better readers and writers. Students will also be listening to some well-known fables; listening to fables will help students learn the elements of this genre. They will also be introduced to new vocabulary words and will develop an understanding of different types of fiction.

     

    Domain 2: The Five Senses

    Description: Everything that we know about the world comes to us through our five senses. Humans gather information about their environment through the use of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Each of the five senses responds to specific stimuli in the world around us, and each uses a unique part of the body to take in information. An exploration of the senses also requires students to make observations and then use language to describe those observations, both of which are key skills in the scientific process. Later lessons will also address what happens if the senses of sight and hearing do not function properly. Students will hear inspirational stories about the lives of two individuals, Ray Charles and Helen Keller, who overcame very significant challenges posed by disabilities related to sight and hearing.

    Quarter 2

    Domain 2: The Five Senses (continued)

    Description: Everything that we know about the world comes to us through our five senses. Humans gather information about their environment through the use of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Each of the five senses responds to specific stimuli in the world around us, and each uses a unique part of the body to take in information. An exploration of the senses also requires students to make observations and then use language to describe those observations, both of which are key skills in the scientific process. Later lessons will also address what happens if the senses of sight and hearing do not function properly. Students will hear inspirational stories about the lives of two individuals, Ray Charles and Helen Keller, who overcame very significant challenges posed by disabilities related to sight and hearing.

     

    Domain 3: Stories

    Description: This domain will introduce students to classic stories that have been favorites with children for generations. Students will become familiar with stories like “The Three Little Pigs,” “Chicken Little,” and “The Bremen Town Musicians.” By listening carefully to and discussing the stories, students will acquire an understanding of the elements of a story including characters, plot, and setting. This domain will also introduce students to recurring themes in popular culture and children’s literature.

     

     

     

    Quarter 3

    Domain 4: Plants

    Description: By listening to the read-alouds in this domain, students will acquire a fundamental understanding of the parts of plants and how they grow. They will learn what plants need in order to stay alive and will be introduced to the concepts of the life cycle of plants, pollination, and photosynthesis. This basic knowledge about plants will lay the foundation for a broader understanding of ecology and the interdependence of all living things, topics that will be addressed in other Kindergarten domains (Farms and Taking Care of the Earth), as well as in subsequent grades

     

    Domain 5: Farms

    Description: This domain will introduce students to several farm animals as well as to crops that people grow on farms. Students will learn how farmers meet the needs of farm animals. You should have already taught the Plants domain, so students will make the connection that animals need food, water, and space to live and grow—just as plants do. Students will understand the importance of farms as a source of food and other products people use.

    Quarter 4

    Domain 5: Farms (continued)

     

    Domain 6: Native Americans

    Description: The Native Americans domain introduces students to the broad concept that indigenous people lived on the continents of North and South America long before European explorers visited and settled in this area. Students will learn that there were many, many different tribes of Native Americans, and that each tribe had its own way of eating, dressing, and living, depending on where they lived. Students will learn about three tribes in particular: the Lakota Sioux of the Great Plains region, and the Wampanoag and the Lenape, both of the Eastern Woodlands region. They will begin to

     

    Domain 7: Kings and Queens

    Description: In the Kings and Queens domain, students will listen to read-alouds about kings and queens and royal families. Both the fiction and nonfiction selections will build students’ understanding of the responsibilities, lifestyle, and customs associated with royalty throughout history. Many of the fictional rhymes, poems,and stories in this domain are classic, well-loved tales, including King Midas and the Golden Touch, The Princess and the Pea,Cinderella, and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.

  • Kindergarten Skills

    Quarter 1

    Unit 1

    This unit has three main purposes. The first purpose is to increase students’awareness of environmental noises and words within sentences. The second purpose of Unit 1 is to teach students to draw a number of writing strokes used to create letters.The third purpose of Unit 1 is to teach students the meanings of various position words (e.g., right, left, top, bottom, etc.)

     

    Unit 2

    The main purpose of the oral language exercises in this unit is to develop students’ oral blending skills and to introduce students to blending at the phoneme level.Once students are comfortable blending two syllables, they will blend two sounds and move on to blend three sounds.The focus in this unit is predominantly on initial sounds because these are the easiest for children to hear and segment. Students also learn to read and trace their names in this unit.

     

    Unit 3

    In Unit 3, students will begin to make connections between sounds and symbols. They will continue to practice blending sounds into words and they will be taught several of the symbols we use when we read and write. Specifically, they will learn the most common way to spell eight of the sounds of English: m a, t, d, o, k, g, i

     

    Quarter 2

    Unit 3 (continued)

     

    Unit 4

    In this unit we introduce eight sounds along with the most common way of spelling each sound. The eight sounds and corresponding spellings are:

    • /n/ spelled ‘n’ as in man

    • /h/ spelled ‘h’ as in hat

    • /s/ spelled ‘s’ as in sit

    • /f/ spelled ‘f’ as in fan

    • /v/ spelled ‘v’ as in van

    • /z/ spelled ‘z’ as in zigzag

    • /p/ spelled ‘p’ as in pig

    • /e/ spelled ‘e’ as in pen

    As in Unit 3, each new sound is introduced by playing oral language games. Students are shown how to make a picture of the sound. As in Unit 3, only the lowercase letters are taught. Continue to avoid the use of letter names.

     

    Unit 5

    In this unit we introduce eight more sounds using the most common spelling of each sound. In addition, we introduce a spelling alternative for the /k/ sound. The nine sounds and corresponding spellings are:

    • /b/ spelled ‘b’ as in bed

    • /l/ spelled ‘l’ as in log

    • /r/ spelled ‘r’ as in rat

    • /u/ spelled ‘u’ as in mug

    • /w/ spelled ‘w’ as in wig

    • /j/ spelled ‘j’ as in jam

    • /y/ spelled ‘y’ as in yes

    • /x/ spelled ‘x’ as in box (a sound combination)

    • /k/ spelled ‘k’ as in kid (as an alternative to ‘c’)

    As in Units 3 and 4, each new sound is introduced with oral language exercises and students are shown how to make a picture of the sound. Only the most common, or least ambiguous, spelling is taught for each of the sounds.

    Quarter 3

    Unit 6

    This unit differs from Units 3–5 in several ways. In each of the three previous units, you introduced eight or nine letter-sound correspondences. In this unit,you will introduce only one new letter-sound correspondence, the ‘s’ spelling for the /z/ sound. Students have already learned the spelling ‘z’ for the /z/ sound. In this unit, they will learn that the spelling ‘s’ is a spelling alternative for /z/. One goal for this unit is to encourage students to automatize the lettersound correspondence and blending procedures they learned in Units 3–5. Letter names and consonant clusters are introduced in this unit.

     

    Unit 7

    In this unit we introduce six more consonant sounds and the most common spelling for each sound:

    • /ch/ spelled ‘ch’ as in chin

    • /sh/ spelled ‘sh’ as in shop

    • /th/ (unvoiced) spelled ‘th’ as in thin

    • /th/ (voiced) spelled ‘th’ as in them

    • /qu/ spelled ‘qu’ as in quit

    • /ng/ spelled ‘ng’ as in sing

    The six sounds presented in Unit 7 differ from the sounds studied up to this point because all six are generally written with two letters instead of one.

     

     

    Quarter 4

    Unit 8

    In this unit, you will introduce 14 double-letter spellings for consonant sounds and seven high-frequency Tricky Words

     

    These are the double-letter spellings in this unit:

    • ‘mm’ for /m/ as in drumming

    • ‘nn’ for /n/ as in running

    • ‘pp’ for /p/ as in puppets

    • ‘bb’ for /b/ as in rabbit

    • ‘tt’ for /t/ as in mitt

    • ‘dd’ for /d/ as in sledding

    • ‘cc’ and ‘ck’ for /k/ as in hiccup and clock

    • ‘gg’ for /g/ as in egg

    • ‘ff’ for /f/ as in muffi n

    • ‘ss’ for /s/ as in dress

    • ‘zz’ for /z/ as in jazz

    • ‘ll’ for /l/ as in shell

    • ‘rr’ for /r/ as in ferret

     

    Unit 9

    This unit does not introduce any new letter-sound correspondences. However, it does introduce the uppercase letters having a different shape than the lowercase letters as well as 17 additional Tricky Words. It also introduces story questions worksheets, which contain questions on the stories in the Reader

     

    Unit 10

    In this unit you will introduce five additional vowel sounds and the most common spelling for each sound:

    • /ee/ spelled ‘ee’ as in tree

    • /ae/ spelled ‘a_e’ as in plane

    • /ie/ spelled ‘i_e’ as in limes

    • /oe/ spelled ‘o_e’ as in cone

    • /ue/ spelled ‘u_e’ as in cube

    You will also teach eleven additional Tricky Words, most of which contain one of the sounds taught in this unit

  • 1st Grade Listening & Learning

    Quarter 1

    Domain 1: Fables and Stories

    Description: This domain will introduce students to fables and stories that have delighted generations of people. By listening to these classics, students will increase their vocabulary and reading comprehension skills, learn valuable lessons about ethics and behavior, become familiar with the key elements and parts of a story, and acquire cultural literacy. For example, a student who has listened to “The Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing” in this grade will be prepared to later understand a news reporter who characterizes a politician as “a wolf in sheep’s clothing.”

     

    Domain 2: The Human Body

    "Description: The primary focus of the first half of this domain is to provide students with a basic introduction to the human body. An interactive approach is taken in the fi rst six read-alouds. Students will be asked to explore and make discoveries about their own bodies. They will be introduced to a network of body systems, comprised of organs that work together to perform a variety of vitally important jobs. They will learn the fundamental parts and functions of fi ve body systems: skeletal, muscular, digestive, circulatory, and nervous. The narrator of these read-alouds, a rhyming pediatrician, will share rhymes that reinforce basic facts that students are expected to learn.

     

    The second half of this domain focuses on care and maintenance of the human body. Students will learn how germs can cause disease,as well as how to help stop the spread of germs. They will be introduced to two men, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, whose discoveries aided in the cure of diseases. Students will be taught five keys to good health—eat well, exercise, sleep, keep clean, and have regular checkups. By using the food pyramid and “plate” to create their own meals, students will also learn the importance of a well-balanced diet. This domain will provide students with the rudimentary lessons they need in order to develop healthy living habits. They will review and extend their learning in future grades."

    Quarter 2

    Domain 2: The Human Body (continued)

    "Description: The primary focus of the first half of this domain is to provide students with a basic introduction to the human body. An interactive approach is taken in the first six read-alouds. Students will be asked to explore and make discoveries about their own bodies. They will be introduced to a network of body systems, comprised of organs that work together to perform a variety of vitally important jobs. They will learn the fundamental parts and functions of five body systems: skeletal, muscular, digestive, circulatory, and nervous. The narrator of these read-alouds, a rhyming pediatrician, will share rhymes that reinforce basic facts that students are expected to learn.

     

    The second half of this domain focuses on care and maintenance of the human body. Students will learn how germs can cause disease,as well as how to help stop the spread of germs. They will be introduced to two men, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, whose discoveries aided in the cure of diseases. Students will be taught five keys to good health—eat well, exercise, sleep, keep clean, and have regular checkups. By using the food pyramid and “plate” to create their own meals, students will also learn the importance of a well-balanced diet. This domain will provide students with the rudimentary lessons they need in order to develop healthy living habits. They will review and extend their learning in future grades."

     

    Domain 3: Different Lands, Similar Stories

    Description: This domain will introduce your students to three themes in folktales that have been told to children for generations, using variations from different lands or countries. By listening to these stories, students will increase their vocabulary and reading comprehension skills, be exposed to different places and cultures from around the world, and learn valuable universal lessons.

     

     

     

    Quarter 3

    Domain 4: Early World Civilization

    "Description: This domain will introduce students to the development of early civilizations by examining the fundamental features of civilizations,including the advent of farming, establishment of cities and government, and creation of other practices, such as writing and religion. It should be noted that the word civilization, as used in this domain, is not meant to convey a value judgment but to indicate that a group of people collectively established and shared these practices. Starting in the ancient Middle East, students will study Mesopotamia. They will learn about the importance of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the development of cuneiform as the earliest-known form of writing, the first codification of laws known as the Code of Hammurabi, and the significance of gods and goddesses in the “cradle of civilization.”

     

    Students will then explore ancient Egypt and be able to compare and contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt. They will learn about the importance of the Nile River; the use of hieroglyphs; the rise of pharaohs, including Tutankhamun and Hatshepsut; the building of the Sphinx and pyramids; and the significance of mummification and the afterlife for ancient Egyptians.

     

    In the first two parts of the domain, the concept of religion (polytheism) in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt is introduced as one of the major forces shaping those civilizations. The end of the domain provides a historical introduction to the development of three world religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—which are all characterized by a belief in a single God. The fi rst read-aloud on religion acts as an introduction for the next three and connects this information to what students have already learned about the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. This part of the domain will help provide students with a basic vocabulary for understanding many events and ideas in history throughout later grades."

     

    Domain 5: Early American Civilization

    Description: The domain includes a study of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations, exposing students to the gradual development of cities. Students will examine the fundamental features of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca, including farming, the establishment of cities and government, as well as religion. Students will be encouraged to compare and contrast each of these societies and their elements. Specifically, students will learn about the ancient Mayan city of Baakal and about the Mayan king, Pakal II. Students will also learn about Moctezuma, the Aztec ruler, and about the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan. For the Inca, students will hear about the city of Machu Picchu and the role the Inca runners played in Incan society. Last, students will learn that much of what we know about the Maya, the Aztec, and the Inca today is due to the work of archaeologists.

    Quarter 4

    Domain 6: Astronomy

    Description: In this domain, students will be introduced to the solar system—our home in space. They will learn that Earth, the planet on which we live, is just one of many different celestial bodies within the solar system. They will learn how the sun, the stars, the moon, and the other planets relate to the earth (given its position in space). In the early read-alouds, students will learn that the sun is a giant star as well as a source of light, heat, and energy for the earth. They will also learn about the earth’s orbit around the sun, and how the earth’s own rotation on its axis leads to the phenomenon of day and night. Part of this domain is focused on the history of space exploration and the missions to the moon. Students will learn about NASA,the Space Race, the Apollo missions, and what it takes to be an astronaut. Students will get a good introduction to the basics of astronomy in this domain, and this foundation will be built upon when students study the solar system in much greater depth in the third grade.

     

    Domain 8: Animals and Habitats

    Description: This domain will introduce students to the wonder of the natural world, focusing on the interconnectedness of all living things with their physical environment and with one another. Students will learn what a habitat is and will also learn to identify specific types of habitats and their related characteristics. They will learn to recognize different plants and animals as being indigenous to specific habitats and will begin to develop an understanding of several fundamental principles of nature. They will learn, for example, that animals and plants typically live in those habitats to which they are best suited, often developing unique characteristics or features that enable them to specifically adapt to the climate and conditions of a given environment. They will also be introduced to simple classifications of animals according to the types of food they eat and will begin to understand the notion of a food chain.

  • 1st Grade Skills

    Quarter 1

    Unit 1:

    Unit 1 will be a review for students who completed the Kindergarten CKLA program. In Unit 1, students will review the sounds and spellings taught in the CKLA Kindergarten curriculum. They will also read decodable stories from Snap Shots.

     

    Back-to-School Week Lessons (1–5)

    The Back-to-School lessons reacquaint students with CKLA daily routines and exercises. In addition, the Back-to-School lessons prepare students for the placement assessments that follow this week by providing practice and review of reading skills and code knowledge.

     

    Assessment and Placement Lessons (6–10)

    Throughout the program, you will see the symbol  whenever an assessment is indicated. Details regarding the assessments are described in further detail in the Assessment and Placement sections later in the unit. It is imperative that students be placed in groups that correspond with their reading abilities. Students must receive instruction that is a good match for their reading abilities and knowledge of the code.

     

    Review of Sound/Spelling Correspondences Lessons (11–32)

    This review of sound/spelling correspondences allows for a rapid review, most of which should be familiar to students. Although the pace is rapid, it should be appropriate for students who have already learned the bulk of these letter-sound correspondences. However, the pace will be too rapid for students who know only a few of the letter-sound correspondences covered in Unit 1. The Story Reading Test and the Word Reading Test will identify students who struggle with recognizing these letter-sound correspondences.

    Following administration of the assessments, the struggling students should be placed at an earlier point of the CKLA grade level materials for Skills instruction.

     

    Unit 2 (1-3):

    In Unit 2, you will introduce five vowel sounds and the most common (or least ambiguous) spelling for each sound:

    • /ee/ spelled ‘ee’ as in seed

    • /ae/ spelled ‘a_e’ as in cake

    • /ie/ spelled ‘i_e’ as in line

    • /oe/ spelled ‘o_e’ as in hope

    • /ue/ spelled ‘u_e’ as in cube

     

    The digraph ‘ee’ and the separated digraphs were taught in Unit 10 of the Kindergarten curriculum, so some or all of this may be review for students.

     

    The grammar lessons in this unit focus on nouns, including proper nouns, and sentence building. Grammar is reviewed in some of the Warm-Ups as well. We encourage you to have students practice their noun identification skills whenever they are reading a story from the Reader of this unit.

     

    In this unit, we introduce eleven Tricky Words. All of these words are high frequency words that cannot be pronounced accurately using blending and the letter-sound correspondences taught so far.

    Quarter 2

    Unit 2 (4-22):

    In Unit 2, you will introduce five vowel sounds and the most common (or least ambiguous) spelling for each sound:

    • /ee/ spelled ‘ee’ as in seed

    • /ae/ spelled ‘a_e’ as in cake

    • /ie/ spelled ‘i_e’ as in line

    • /oe/ spelled ‘o_e’ as in hope

    • /ue/ spelled ‘u_e’ as in cube

    The digraph ‘ee’ and the separated digraphs were taught in Unit 10 of the Kindergarten curriculum, so some or all of this may be review for students.

     

    The grammar lessons in this unit focus on nouns, including proper nouns, and sentence building. Grammar is reviewed in some of the Warm-Ups as well. We encourage you to have students practice their noun identification skills whenever they are reading a story from the Reader of this unit.

     

    In this unit, we introduce eleven Tricky Words. All of these words are high frequency words that cannot be pronounced accurately using blending andthe letter-sound correspondences taught so far.

     

    Unit 3 (1-16):

    In Unit 3, you will introduce fi ve additional vowel sounds and the most common spelling for each sound:

    • /oo/ spelled ‘oo’ as in soon

    • /oo/ spelled ‘oo’ as in look

    • /ou/ spelled ‘ou’ as in shout

    • /oi/ spelled ‘oi’ as in oil

    • /aw/ spelled ‘aw’ as in paw

    The sounds /oo/ and /oo/ are both spelled ‘oo’. Students will practice sounding out the tricky spelling ‘oo’. A tricky spelling is a grapheme that can be pronounced more than one way.

     

    The grammar exercises in this unit focus on verb identification and verb tense. Students will practice identifying whether a verb represents an action that is happening in the present or one that happened in the past.

     

    In this unit, we begin formal instruction in the writing process by focusing on narrative writing. Early lessons call for students to practice retelling a previously read story, incorporating key story features by identifying the setting, describing the characters, and then recounting a sequential series of events from the plot. Students progress from writing a simple narrative retelling to writing a book report, in which they are encouraged to include their opinion about the story that they have read.

    Quarter 3

    Unit 3 (17-22):

    Unit 3 (1-16):

    In Unit 3, you will introduce five additional vowel sounds and the most common spelling for each sound:

    • /oo/ spelled ‘oo’ as in soon

    • /oo/ spelled ‘oo’ as in look

    • /ou/ spelled ‘ou’ as in shout

    • /oi/ spelled ‘oi’ as in oil

    • /aw/ spelled ‘aw’ as in paw

    The sounds /oo/ and /oo/ are both spelled ‘oo’. Students will practice sounding out the tricky spelling ‘oo’. A tricky spelling is a grapheme that can be pronounced more than one way.

     

    The grammar exercises in this unit focus on verb identification and verb tense. Students will practice identifying whether a verb represents an action that is happening in the present or one that happened in the past.

     

    In this unit, we begin formal instruction in the writing process by focusing on narrative writing. Early lessons call for students to practice retelling a previously read story, incorporating key story features by identifying the setting, describing the characters, and then recounting a sequential series of events from the plot. Students progress from writing a simple narrative retelling to writing a book report, in which they are encouraged to include their opinion about the story that they have read.

     

    Unit 4 (1-31):

    In this unit you will introduce the sounds that are sometimes called the

    /r/-controlled vowel sounds and the most common (or least ambiguous)

    spelling for each sound:

    • /er/ spelled ‘er’ as in her

    • /ar/ spelled ‘ar’ as in car

    • /or/ spelled ‘or’ as in for

     

    In this unit you will introduce the concept of a syllable to students. So far,students have encountered only single-syllable words in their Readers. Students are introduced to past-tense verb forms ending with –ed. In addition to the past-tense marker –ed, students will continue to work with nouns and verbs in phrases, and be introduced to adjectives. Students will practice identifying and marking nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Verb tense and the concept of past, present, and future will be discussed.

     

    We continue our writing lessons by teaching descriptive writing. Students will practice thinking about the five senses to describe objects, and they will then describe and write informational text about an animal from The Green Fern Zoo.

     

    Unit 5 (1-5):

    In this unit you will begin teaching the spelling alternatives that make up the advanced code. Up to this point, students have mostly been learning the basic code. That is, they have learned one way to write each of the sounds in English, with the exception of /zh/. Thus far, they have learned only a handful of spelling alternatives:

    • the ‘k’ spelling for /k/ as in kite (an alternative for ‘c’ as in cat)

    • the double-letter spellings for consonant sounds (‘ff’ as in stuff, ‘ll’ as in

    bell, ‘ss’ as in dress, ‘ck’ as in black, etc.)

    • the ‘s’ spelling for /z/ as in is and dogs

    • the ‘ed’ spelling as a past-tense marker for /d/ as in filled and for /t/ as in asked

    There are many more spelling alternatives to learn. In this unit and the next, we focus on spelling alternatives for consonant sounds. These are less numerous and also less frequently used than the spelling alternatives for vowel sounds, which will be addressed later in the CKLA sequence.

     

    Beginning in this unit and continuing until the end of the year, you will frequently teach what in CKLA is called the Spelling Alternatives Lesson. Each Spelling Alternatives Lesson begins with a note to the teacher. This note is meant to give you some background knowledge concerning the sound of the day and its spellings. A chart shows you which spellings for this sound are most common, and a list of bullet points identifies some common spelling patterns for the sound. The bulleted information is primarily for your information; there is no expectation that you will convey all of it to students. You might offer little bits of it, if and when occasions present themselves.

     

    Students will learn about and practice changing nouns from singular to plural, as well as the way some root words change when adding the suffixes–ing and –ed. They will review nouns and verbs, including the identification and formation of present, past, and future tense. Additional grammar topics covered in this unit are sentence types, parts of sentences, and sentence building. Students will practice identifying and creating statements, questions, and exclamations, both orally and in writing. They will also practice creating longer sentences.

     

    In this unit, we continue formal instruction in the writing process by asking students to write a letter to Kate, expressing their personal opinion about their favorite parts of her book. Students will be encouraged to give reasons substantiating why a certain part is their favorite, citing examples from the text.

    Quarter 4

     

    Unit 5 (6-25):

    In this unit you will begin teaching the spelling alternatives that make up the advanced code. Up to this point, students have mostly been learning the basic code. That is, they have learned one way to write each of the sounds in English, with the exception of /zh/. Thus far, they have learned only a handful of spelling alternatives:

    • the ‘k’ spelling for /k/ as in kite (an alternative for ‘c’ as in cat)

    • the double-letter spellings for consonant sounds (‘ff’ as in stuff, ‘ll’ as in

    bell, ‘ss’ as in dress, ‘ck’ as in black, etc.)

    • the ‘s’ spelling for /z/ as in is and dogs

    • the ‘ed’ spelling as a past-tense marker for /d/ as in filled and for /t/ as in asked

    There are many more spelling alternatives to learn. In this unit and the next, we focus on spelling alternatives for consonant sounds. These are less numerous and also less frequently used than the spelling alternatives for vowel sounds, which will be addressed later in the CKLA sequence.

     

    Beginning in this unit and continuing until the end of the year, you will frequently teach what in CKLA is called the Spelling Alternatives Lesson. Each Spelling Alternatives Lesson begins with a note to the teacher. This note is meant to give you some background knowledge concerning the sound of the day and its spellings. A chart shows you which spellings for this sound are most common, and a list of bullet points identifies some common spelling patterns for the sound. The bulleted information is primarily for your information; there is no expectation that you will convey all of it to students. You might offer little bits of it, if and when occasions present themselves.

     

    Students will learn about and practice changing nouns from singular to plural, as well as the way some root words change when adding the suffixes–ing and –ed. They will review nouns and verbs, including the identification and formation of present, past, and future tense. Additional grammar topics covered in this unit are sentence types, parts of sentences, and sentence building. Students will practice identifying and creating statements, questions, and exclamations, both orally and in writing. They will also practice creating longer sentences.

     

    In this unit, we continue formal instruction in the writing process by asking students to write a letter to Kate, expressing their personal opinion about their favorite parts of her book. Students will be encouraged to give reasons substantiating why a certain part is their favorite, citing examples from the text.

     

    Unit 7- End of Year Assessments (Lessons 19-21)

    An End-of-Year Assessment for students using the Core Knowledge Language Arts program for Grade 1 is provided. You should administer this year-end assessment even if students have not fully completed all units of the Grade 1 CKLA program. If time permits, it would be ideal to administer the entire assessment to all students in your class. Administer the Reading Comprehension Assessment to all students. The story used in the Reading Comprehension Assessment will be completely decodable for students who have completed Unit 6. The assessment allows you to gauge students’ independent reading proficiency and comprehension. It also allows you to do additional follow-up assessment for students who may be struggling.

     

    The Fluency Assessment makes use of the same story, “Shark and Wee Fish,” for assessment of reading accuracy and fluency. As you listen to individual students read the story aloud, you will make a running record and take a measurement of fluency. This section should be administered to all students who miss two or more of the seven questions on the Reading Comprehension Assessment.

     

    The Word Reading in Isolation Assessment is a word-reading assessment designed to test students’ ability to read the specific spellings taught or reviewed in Grade 1. Ideally, you should administer this section to all students. However, if time is limited, you may choose to administer this section only to those students to whom you administered the Fluency Assessment, or those students in your classroom who are most at risk.

  • 2nd Grade Listening & Learning

    Quarter 1

    Domain 1: Fairy Tales and Tall Tales

    Description: This domain will introduce students to classic fairy tales and tall tales and the well-known lessons they teach. This domain will also lay the foundation for understanding stories in future grades. The first half of the Fairy Tales and Tall Tales domain focuses on fairy tales. These fairy tales will remind students of the elements of fiction they have heard about in previous grades and will be a good reintroduction to the practice of Listening & Learning. Students who have used the Core Knowledge Language Arts program in Kindergarten and Grade 1 will be familiar with some fairy tales and the elements of the fairy tale genre from the Kings and Queens domain (Kindergarten) and from the Fairy Tales domain (Grade 1). In this domain, students will be reminded of these elements and hear the fairy tales of “The Fisherman and His Wife,” “The Emperor’s New Clothes,” and “Beauty and the Beast.” Students will be able to relate to the problems faced by characters in each of these memorable tales, as well as learn from the lessons in each story. The second half of the domain focuses on tall tales and the elements of that genre. Students will be introduced to the tall tales of “Paul Bunyan,” “Pecos Bill,” “John Henry,” and “Casey Jones.” Learning about tall tales will introduce students to the setting of the American frontier and some of the occupations settlers had

     

    Domain 2: Early Asian Civilizations

    Description: This domain will introduce students to the continent of Asia and its two most populous countries, India and China. Students will learn about the early civilizations in India and China and how they were both able to form because of mighty rivers. Students will once again hear about the important features of early civilizations, to which they were introduced in the Grade 1 Early World Civilizations domain. These features include the advent of farming, establishment of cities and government, and other practices such as writing and religion. (You may wish to borrow the Early World Civilizations and Early American Civilizations Anthologies from your Grade 1 teachers for your personal review of these features.) Students will first learn about early India and will be introduced to the basics of Hinduism and Buddhism—two major religions from this area—as major forces shaping early Indian civilization. They will also hear two works of fiction originally from India: “The Tiger, the Brahman, and the Jackal” and “The Blind Men and the Elephant.” Then, students will learn about early Chinese civilization and the many contributions made by the early Chinese, including paper, silk, and the Great Wall of China. The content in this domain is reinforced through the informational/ explanatory writing genre. This domain will lay the foundation for further study of Asia in later grades and will help students better understand world history in later years.

    Quarter 2

    Domain 2: Early Asian Civilizations (continued)

    Description: This domain will introduce students to the continent of Asia and its two most populous countries, India and China. Students will learn about the early civilizations in India and China and how they were both able to form because of mighty rivers. Students will once again hear about the important features of early civilizations, to which they were introduced in the Grade 1 Early World Civilizations domain. These features include the advent of farming, establishment of cities and government, and other practices such as writing and religion. (You may wish to borrow the Early World Civilizations and Early American Civilizations Anthologies from your Grade 1 teachers for your personal review of these features.) Students will first learn about early India and will be introduced to the basics of Hinduism and Buddhism—two major religions from this area—as major forces shaping early Indian civilization. They will also hear two works of fiction originally from India: “The Tiger, the Brahman, and the Jackal” and “The Blind Men and the Elephant.” Then, students will learn about early Chinese civilization and the many contributions made by the early Chinese, including paper, silk, and the Great Wall of China. The content in this domain is reinforced through the informational/ explanatory writing genre. This domain will lay the foundation for further study of Asia in later grades and will help students better understand world history in later years.

     

    Domain 3: The Ancient Greek Civilization

    Description: This domain will introduce students to an ancient civilization whose contributions can be seen in many areas of our lives today. Students will learn about the gods and goddesses of the ancient Greeks, the city-states of Sparta and Athens, and the philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They will learn about the first Olympic Games held in honor of Zeus, the significance of the battles of Marathon and Thermopylae, and the conquests of Alexander the Great. Students will also learn about the Greek contribution of democracy and how those ideas are used today in many governments, including our own. The content in this domain is reinforced through the fictional narrative writing genre.

    Quarter 3

    Domain 3: The Ancient Greek Civilization (continued)

    Description: This domain will introduce students to an ancient civilization whose contributions can be seen in many areas of our lives today. Students will learn about the gods and goddesses of the ancient Greeks, the city-states of Sparta and Athens, and the philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They will learn about the first Olympic Games held in honor of Zeus, the significance of the battles of Marathon and Thermopylae, and the conquests of Alexander the Great. Students will also learn about the Greek contribution of democracy and how those ideas are used today in many governments, including our own. The content in this domain is reinforced through the fictional narrative writing genre.

     

    Domain 4: Greek Myths

    "This domain builds on The Ancient Greek Civilization domain and will introduce students to several well-known Greek myths and many well-known mythical characters. Students will learn that the ancient Greeks worshiped many gods and goddesses, and that the twelve they believed lived on Mount Olympus, the home of the gods, were the most powerful.

     

    Students will learn the definition of a myth: a fictional story, once thought to be true that tried to explain mysteries of nature and humankind. They will also learn about myths that include supernatural beings or events, and that myths give insight into the ancient Greek culture. Students will hear about Prometheus and Pandora, Demeter and Persephone, Arachne the Weaver, the Sphinx, and Hercules, among others.

     

    References to Greek mythology are still culturally relevant today, and this domain will give students a frame of reference with which to understand literary allusions and the meanings of common words and expressions, such as herculean. It will also better enable them to understand modern re-tellings of these ancient stories. It is important to note that the content of some myths might unsettle some children. While these versions of the stories have been adapted from the originals, and most potentially unsettling details have been eliminated, some students may still be sensitive to details contained in the versions presented here. You may want to remind students periodically that these myths are fiction.

     

    Please preview all read-alouds and lessons in this domain before presenting them to students and feel free to substitute a trade book from the list of recommended trade books if you feel doing so would be more appropriate for your students. As you read, use the same strategies that you have been using when reading the read-aloud selections in this Anthology—pause and ask occasional questions; rapidly clarify critical vocabulary within the context of the read-aloud; etc. After you finish reading the trade book, lead students in a discussion as to how the story or information in the book relates to the read-alouds in this domain. The content in this domain is reinforced through the fictional narrative writing genre in the last four lessons of the domain."

     

    Domain 6: Cycles in Nature

    This domain will introduce your students to the many natural cycles that make life on Earth possible. Your students will increase their knowledge of cycles in nature by learning more about seasonal cycles, and by beginning their study of flowering plants and trees, animal life cycles, and the importance of the water cycle. Students will also learn about the effect seasonal changes have on plants and animals. In addition, throughout this domain, students will gain exposure to poems by renowned authors Emily Dickinson and Robert Louis Stevenson. As students learn that all organisms experience the developmental stages of the life cycle, they will also learn how their growth and development relates to Earth’s seasonal cycles and begin to understand how all organisms depend on Earth’s limited water supply.

    Quarter 4

    Domain 6: Cycles in Nature (continued)

    This domain will introduce your students to the many natural cycles that make life on Earth possible. Your students will increase their knowledge of cycles in nature by learning more about seasonal cycles, and by beginning their study of flowering plants and trees, animal life cycles, and the importance of the water cycle. Students will also learn about the effect seasonal changes have on plants and animals. In addition, throughout this domain, students will gain exposure to poems by renowned authors Emily Dickinson and Robert Louis Stevenson. As students learn that all organisms experience the developmental stages of the life cycle, they will also learn how their growth and development relates to Earth’s seasonal cycles and begin to understand how all organisms depend on Earth’s limited water supply.

     

    Domain  10: The Human Body - Building Blocks and Nutrition

    "This domain covers a number of topics regarding the human body. This domain first covers concepts regarding cells and how cells form the building blocks of life on Earth. Students are then taught how collections of cells form tissues, and tissues form organs, and finally how organs work within the various body systems. In addition, students are taught about Anton van Leeuwenhoek and his work with the microscope and his discovery of the tiny one-celled bacteria.

    Students will then hear about the digestive and excretory systems. They will learn the fundamental parts and functions of these two body systems. The narrator of these read-alouds is a nutritionist named Nick Nutri, who reinforces basic facts that students will be learning.

     

    The remainder of this domain focuses on the importance of good nutrition and how to make good choices in order to eat a well-balanced diet. Students will be taught five keys to good health — eat well, exercise, sleep, keep clean, and have regular checkups."

  • 2nd Grade Skills

    Quarter 1

    Unit 1:

    Unit 1 will be a review for students who completed the Grade 1 CKLA program. In Unit 1, students will review a number of spellings from Grade 1 with an emphasis on consonant sounds, one and two syllable words and number of high-frequency Tricky words. They will also read decodable stories from The Cat Bandit.

     

    Back-to-School Week Lessons (1–5)

    The Back-to-School lessons reacquaint students with CKLA daily routines and exercises. In addition, the Back-to-School lessons prepare students for the placement assessments that follow this week by providing practice and review of reading skills and code knowledge.

     

    Assessment and Placement Lessons (6–10)

    Throughout the program, you will see the symbol ~ whenever an assessment is indicated. Details regarding the assessments are described in further detail in the Assessment and Placement sections later in the unit. It is imperative that students be placed in groups that correspond with their reading abilities. Students must receive instruction that is a good match for their reading abilities and knowledge of the code.

     

    Review of Sound/Spelling Correspondences Lessons (11–22)

    This spellings-to-sounds format allows for a rapid review of spellings, most of which should be familiar to students. Although the pace of the spellings-to-sound review of Unit 1 is rapid, it should be appropriate for students who have already learned the bulk of these letter-sound correspondences. However, the pace will be too rapid for students who know only a few of the letter-sound correspondences covered in Unit 1. The Story Reading Assessment and the Word Reading Assessment will identify students who struggle with recognition of these letter-sound correspondences. Following administration of these assessments, some students should be placed at an earlier point of the CKLA grade-level materials for Skills instruction.

     

    Unit 2 (1-12):

    In the last unit, students read words containing the basic code spellings for the five “short” vowel sounds:

    • ‘i’ > /i/ (it)

    • ‘e’ > /e/ (pet)

    • ‘a’ > /a/ (hat)

    • ‘u’ > /u/ (but)

    • ‘o’ > /o/ (hop)

     

    This unit is the second of two units, which should be largely review for students who were taught the Core Knowledge Language Arts (CKLA) program last year. In this unit, students will:

    • review a number of spellings they learned in Grade 1, with an emphasis on spellings for vowel sounds

    • read one- and two-syllable words

    • read contractions and provide their noncontracted equivalents

    • practicing recognizing a number of high-frequency Tricky words

    • read decodable stories in the Unit 2 Reader, Bedtime Tales

    • begin the Grammar strand, with instruction in the use of quotation marks

    • begin instruction in the writing process, with a focus on writing narratives and opinions

    Quarter 2

    Unit 2 (13-16)

    In the last unit, students read words containing the basic code spellings for the five “short” vowel sounds:

    • ‘i’ > /i/ (it)

    • ‘e’ > /e/ (pet)

    • ‘a’ > /a/ (hat)

    • ‘u’ > /u/ (but)

    • ‘o’ > /o/ (hop)

     

    This unit is the second of two units, which should be largely review for students who were taught the Core Knowledge Language Arts (CKLA) program last year. In this unit, students will:

    • review a number of spellings they learned in Grade 1, with an emphasis on spellings for vowel sounds

    • read one- and two-syllable words

    • read contractions and provide their noncontracted equivalents

    • practicing recognizing a number of high-frequency Tricky words

    • read decodable stories in the Unit 2 Reader, Bedtime Tales

    • begin the Grammar strand, with instruction in the use of quotation marks

    • begin instruction in the writing process, with a focus on writing narratives and opinions

     

    Unit 3 (1-25):

    This unit is devoted to introducing spelling alternatives for vowel sounds. Vowel sounds and their spellings are the most challenging part of the English writing system. There are only two vowel sounds that are almost always spelled one way. One is /a/, which is almost always spelled ‘a’ as in at. The other is /ar/, which is almost always spelled ‘ar’ as in car. The other sixteen vowel sounds have at least one signifi cant spelling alternative. Several of them have many spelling alternatives.

     

    Unit 4 (1-4):

    Unit 4 is devoted to introducing more spelling alternatives for vowel sounds and three tricky spellings. Remember vowel sounds and their spellings are the most challenging part of the English writing system. Only two vowel sounds are almost always spelled just one way (/a/ and /ar/). The other 16 vowel sounds have at least one signifi cant spelling alternative. Several of them have many spelling alternatives. Many opportunities are provided in this unit for review of the spelling alternatives. The specific sounds and spellings introduced for the first time in this unit are:

    • /er/ spelled ‘er’ (her), ‘ur’ (hurt), ‘ir’ (bird)

    • /i/ spelled ‘y’ (myth)

    • /ie/ spelled ‘y’ (try), ‘igh’ (night)

    • /oe/ spelled ‘ow’ (snow)

    • /ee/ spelled ‘e’ (me), ‘y’ (funny), ‘ey’ (key)

    • /aw/ spelled ‘al’ (wall)

    Quarter 3

    Unit 4 (5-25):

    Unit 4 is devoted to introducing more spelling alternatives for vowel sounds and three tricky spellings. Remember vowel sounds and their spellings are the most challenging part of the English writing system. Only two vowel sounds are almost always spelled just one way (/a/ and /ar/). The other 16 vowel sounds have at least one signifi cant spelling alternative. Several of them have many spelling alternatives. Many opportunities are provided in this unit for review of the spelling alternatives. The specific sounds and spellings introduced for the first time in this unit are:

    • /er/ spelled ‘er’ (her), ‘ur’ (hurt), ‘ir’ (bird)

    • /i/ spelled ‘y’ (myth)

    • /ie/ spelled ‘y’ (try), ‘igh’ (night)

    • /oe/ spelled ‘ow’ (snow)

    • /ee/ spelled ‘e’ (me), ‘y’ (funny), ‘ey’ (key)

    • /aw/ spelled ‘al’ (wall)

     

    Unit 5 (1-12):

    This unit is devoted to introducing spelling alternatives for vowel sounds. Remember vowel sounds and their spellings are the most challenging part of the English writing system. There are only two vowel sounds almost always spelled just one way (/a/ and /ar/). The other 16 vowel sounds have at least one signifi cant spelling alternative. Several of them have many spelling alternatives.

     

    The sounds and spellings taught in this unit are:

     • /u/ spelled ‘u’ (but), ‘o’ (son), ‘ou’ (touch), ‘o_e’ (come)

    • /ə/ (also called the schwa sound) spelled ‘a’ (about), ‘e’ (debate)

     

    In addition to the above sounds and spellings, two sound combinations and their spellings are also taught in this unit. They are:

    • /ə/ + /l/ spelled ‘al’ (animal), ‘il’ (pencil), ‘el’ (travel), ‘le’ (apple)

    • /sh/ + /ə/ + /n/ spelled ‘tion’ (action)

     

    The basic unit of instruction in this program is the phoneme. We train students to segment a spoken word into single phonemes and spell the word one phoneme at a time. Likewise, when reading, the students learn to identify graphemes (or spellings) that stand for single phonemes and then blend them to make words. This is the best way to read and write most English words, because our writing system is based on making symbols for phonemes.

     

    However, there are some instances in which it makes sense to look at a unit larger than a single phoneme. We introduce two of these multi-sound chunks in this unit. Both contain the /ə/ sound. The students will learn a set of spelling alternatives for /ə/ + /l/ as in table, shovel, devil, and animal. These /ə/ + /l/ words offer a good example of how /ə/ complicates English spelling. The four words above all end with the same sound combination, /ə/ + /l/, and yet they each contain a different spelling. Students will also learn the ‘tion’ spelling for the sound combination /sh/ + /ə/ + /n/, as in action.

     

    You will introduce the above sounds and spellings using Spelling Trees as you have in earlier Grade 2 units. For the various spellings of /u/, you will simply add branches to the /u/ Spelling Tree introduced in Unit 3 with the review of short vowel sounds. For the schwa sounds and spellings, you may choose to have three separate new Spelling Trees: one in which the trunk is labeled /ə/ with two branches for ‘a’ and ‘e’, a second tree in which the trunk is labeled /ə/ + /l/ with four branches for ‘al’, ‘el’, ‘il’, and ‘le’, and a third tree in which the trunk is labeled /sh/ + /ə/ + /n/ with one branch for ‘tion’. If space does not permit you to have three separate trees, however, you may choose to make one large tree in which the trunk is labeled /ə/ with seven branches representing the various spellings associated with the schwa sound. Please refer to the section More About Schwa (/ə/) in this Introduction for a more in-depth explanation of /ə/ and its relationship to /u/.

    Quarter 4

    Unit 5 (13-30):

     This unit is devoted to introducing spelling alternatives for vowel sounds. Remember vowel sounds and their spellings are the most challenging part of the English writing system. There are only two vowel sounds almost always spelled just one way (/a/ and /ar/). The other 16 vowel sounds have at least one signifi cant spelling alternative. Several of them have many spelling alternatives.

     

    The sounds and spellings taught in this unit are:

     • /u/ spelled ‘u’ (but), ‘o’ (son), ‘ou’ (touch), ‘o_e’ (come)

    • /ə/ (also called the schwa sound) spelled ‘a’ (about), ‘e’ (debate)

     

    In addition to the above sounds and spellings, two sound combinations and their spellings are also taught in this unit. They are:

    • /ə/ + /l/ spelled ‘al’ (animal), ‘il’ (pencil), ‘el’ (travel), ‘le’ (apple)

    • /sh/ + /ə/ + /n/ spelled ‘tion’ (action)

     

    The basic unit of instruction in this program is the phoneme. Students are trained to segment a spoken word into single phonemes and spell the word one phoneme at a time. Likewise, when reading, the students learn to identify graphemes (or spellings) that stand for single phonemes and then blend them to make words. This is the best way to read and write most English words, because our writing system is based on making symbols for phonemes.

     

    However, there are some instances in which it makes sense to look at a unit larger than a single phoneme. We introduce two of these multi-sound chunks in this unit. Both contain the /ə/ sound. The students will learn a set of spelling alternatives for /ə/ + /l/ as in table, shovel, devil, and animal. These /ə/ + /l/ words offer a good example of how /ə/ complicates English spelling. The four words above all end with the same sound combination, /ə/ + /l/, and yet they each contain a different spelling. Students will also learn the ‘tion’ spelling for the sound combination /sh/ + /ə/ + /n/, as in action.

     

    You will introduce the above sounds and spellings using Spelling Trees as you have in earlier Grade 2 units. For the various spellings of /u/, you will simply add branches to the /u/ Spelling Tree introduced in Unit 3 with the review of short vowel sounds. For the schwa sounds and spellings, you may choose to have three separate new Spelling Trees: one in which the trunk is labeled /ə/ with two branches for ‘a’ and ‘e’, a second tree in which the trunk is labeled /ə/ + /l/ with four branches for ‘al’, ‘el’, ‘il’, and ‘le’, and a third tree in which the trunk is labeled /sh/ + /ə/ + /n/ with one branch for ‘tion’. If space does not permit you to have three separate trees, however, you may choose to make one large tree in which the trunk is labeled /ə/ with seven branches representing the various spellings associated with the schwa sound. Please refer to the section More About Schwa (/ə/) in this Introduction for a more in-depth explanation of /ə/ and its relationship to /u/.

     

    Unit 6 (1-36):

    This unit is devoted to introducing several new spelling alternatives for vowel and consonant sounds. In this unit you will introduce the following:

     

    Spelling Alternatives for Vowel Sounds

     ‘ar’ > /er/ (dollar)

     ‘or’ > /er/ (work)

     

    Tricky Spellings for Vowel Sounds

     ‘ea’ > /e/ (head)

     ‘i’ > /ee/ (ski)

     ‘a’ > /o/ (lava)

     

    Spelling Alternatives for Consonant Sounds

     ‘ph’ > /f/ (phone)

     ‘ch’ > /k/ (school)

     

    The Reader for this unit is The War of 1812. The Reader covers topics listed in the Core Knowledge Sequence under Grade 2 History, War of 1812. The War of 1812 is important historically as it was the first foreign conflict that the United States faced as a young nation. Although students have been listening to Unit 6 since Kindergarten, this is the first nonfiction Reader students read as part of the Core Knowledge Language Arts (CKLA) program in Grade 2.

     

    At the end of this unit, they will be introduced to expository or report writing. This form of writing is well suited to the nonfiction text they are reading.

  • 3rd Grade

    Quarter 1 Module:

    1: Becoming a Close Reader and Writing to Learn

     

    Title: My Librarian Is a Camel: How Books Are Brought to Children around the World

     

    Description: This module introduces students to the power of literacy and how people around the world access books. Students build close reading skills while learning about people who have gone to great lengths to access literacy. They focus on what it means to be a proficient, independent reader, assessing their strengths, setting goals, and developing their “reading superpowers.” They then delve into geography, considering how where one lives affects how one accesses books. They apply their learning by writing a report (bookmark) about how people access books around the world.

    Quarter 2 Module:

    2B: Researching to Build Knowledge and Teaching Others

     

    Title: Connecting Literary and Informational Texts to Study Culture “Then and Now”

     

    Description: This module is designed to help students use reading, writing, listening, speaking, and collaborative skills to build and share deep knowledge about a topic. Students begin with a class study of the culture of Japan in which they read Magic Tree House: Dragon of the Red Dawn, a book set in ancient Japan, paired with Exploring Countries: Japan, an informational text about modern Japan. Students form book clubs, reading a new Magic Tree House book set in their selected country and an informational text, to build expertise on a different country. They demonstrate their expertise by writing a research-based letter to Magic Tree House author Mary Pope Osborne that informs her of customs and traditions that have endured in a culture from the past to modern time.

    Quarter 3 Module:

    3B: Analyzing Narrative and Supporting Opinions

     

    Title: Wolves: Fact and Fiction

     

    Description: In this module, students explore the questions: “Who is the wolf in fiction?” and “Who is the wolf in fact?” Students begin by reading the traditional Chinese folktale Lon Po Po and a series of fables that feature wolves as characters to build their understanding of how the actions and traits of the wolf and other characters contribute to a sequence of events that convey an important lesson to the reader. Students then move on to research facts about real wolves through the central text Face to Face with Wolves. As they read the text closely, they collect information about the characteristics, behaviors, and habitat of real wolves. To close the module, students write a narrative based on a problem faced by real wolves.

    Quarter 4 Module:

    4: Gathering Evidence and Speaking to Others

     

    Title: The Role of Freshwater around the World

     

    Description: This module focuses on the importance of clean freshwater around the world. Students continue to build their geography and map- reading skills (begun in Module 1) by studying where water is found on earth. They examine the water cycle and watersheds, comparing how different texts present similar information. Then students research challenges facing the earth’s clean water supply: pollution, access, and the demand for water. Students develop opinions about what they can do to conserve, protect, or provide access to clean water, and then create a public service announcement (PSA).

  • 4th Grade

    Quarter 1 Module:

    1A: Becoming a Close Reader and Writing to Learn

     

    Title: Oral Tradition, Symbolism, and Building Community

     

    Description: Module 1 focuses on building community by making connections between visual imagery, oral accounts, poetry and written texts of various cultures with a focus on the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) culture. Students determine a central idea and demonstrate how gathering information from a variety of sources can help us understand a central idea more fully. Module 1 also reinforces reading fluency, close text analysis, explanatory paragraph writing, and presenting to peers. The module reinforces the fact that Native Americans – specifically the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee, People of the Long House) – were early inhabitants of the New York region and state, and continue to contribute to the region’s history.

    Quarter 2 Module:

    2A: Researching to Build Knowledge and Teaching Others

     

    Title: Interdependent Roles in Colonial Times

     

    Description: Students learn about what life was like in Colonial America, focusing on how colonists were interdependent on one another. Students read about various colonial trades (such as the wheelwright, the cooper, etc.), with an emphasis on making inferences, summarizing informational texts and conducting basic research. As the final performance task, students synthesize information from multiple sources as they write a research- based narrative that vividly describes an event in a colonist’s life.

    Quarter 3 Module:

    3A: Considering Perspectives and Supporting Opinions

     

    Title: Simple Machines: Force and Motion

     

    Description: Students build knowledge of simple machines and how they affect force, effort, and work. Students read basic background text and perform Readers Theater about simple machines (written for classroom use). They read an extended scientific text, Simple Machines: Forces in Action (870L), focusing on analyzing scientific concepts. Students develop expertise about specific simple machines (inclined plane, levers, pulleys, etc.), read and conduct science experiments using simple machines, and synthesize their findings by writing scientific conclusion statements. They conduct a “simple machine inventory” at school and home. As a final performance task, students write an editorial to an engineering magazine expressing an opinion about which simple machine benefits people most in their everyday lives.

    Quarter 4 Module:

    4: Gathering Evidence and Speaking to Others

     

    Title: Susan B. Anthony, the Suffrage Movement and the Importance of Voting

     

    Description: Students learn about voting rights and responsibilities. They first focus on the women’s suffrage movement and the leadership of New Yorker Susan B. Anthony, reading firsthand and secondhand accounts of her arrest and trial. Then students read The Hope Chest (historical fiction set in the weeks before the passage of the 19th Amendment) examining the theme of leaders and their impact on others. Finally, students connect the theme of leadership to their own lives by reading about the importance of voting in modern times. As a final performance task, students draft and then create a public service announcement (using VoiceThread technology) to state their opinion to high school seniors about why voting is important.

  • 5th Grade

    Quarter 1 Module:

    1: Becoming a Close Reader and Writing to Learn

     

    Title: Stories of Human Rights

     

    Description: What are human rights, and how do real people and fictional characters respond when those rights are challenged? Students read closely the introduction and selected articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), paired with firsthand accounts of real people facing human rights challenges. They then study Esperanza Rising, applying their new learning about human rights as one lens through which to interpret character and theme. Finally, students revisit the text and themes of the UDHR and Esperanza Rising as they prepare and perform a Readers Theater.

    Quarter 2 Module:

    2A: Researching to Build Knowledge and Teaching Others

     

    Title: Biodiversity in Rainforests of the Western Hemisphere

     

    Description: This module (which could be used in conjunction with a study of Latin America) features a close read of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, which describes the work of scientists documenting rainforest biodiversity. Students build knowledge about the rainforests and how scientists closely observe the natural world to then help them communicate their research. They then do a case study of Meg Lowman, the researcher featured in The Most Beautiful Roof in the World. Finally, students examine the qualities of field guides and journals, research either ants or butterflies of the rainforest, and produce an informational report and a field journal–style page for younger readers.

    Quarter 3 Module:

    3A: Considering Perspectives and Supporting Opinions

     

    Title: Sports and Athletes’ Impact on Culture

     

    Description: Students learn about the importance of sports in American culture. They read the challenging biography Promises to Keep: How Jackie Robinson Changed America, focusing on Robinson as a case study of an athlete who broke societal barriers. They also analyze how Sharon Robinson provides evidence to support her opinions. Next, students research either Althea Gibson or Roberto Clemente, both of whom broke cultural barriers. Finally, students write an opinion letter to a publishing company explaining the need for a biography about that athlete given his/her impact on society.

    Quarter 4 Module:

    4: Gathering Evidence and Speaking to Others

     

    Title: Natural Disasters in the Western Hemisphere

     

    Description: This module integrates science and social studies content. Students read literature set during a natural disaster: the beautifully illustrated picture book Eight Days: A Story of Haiti and the novel Dark Water Rising. They analyze how the narrator’s perspective determines how events are described. Then, students conduct a short research project about Haiti and the Red Cross, and ultimately draft and revise an opinion speech in which they take a stand on what role humanitarian organizations should take when neighboring countries are struck by natural disasters. They deliver this speech to the class.

  • 6th Grade

    Quarter 1 Module:

    1: Reading Closely and Writing to Learn

     

    Title: Myths: Not Just Long Ago

     

    Description: Students study the purposes and elements of mythology. Students read Rick Riordan’s The Lightning Thief with a focus on the archetypal hero’s journey and close reading of the many mythical allusions. They also read complex informational texts about the elements of mythology.

    As a whole class, students will closely read several complex Greek myths, and then work in small groups to build expertise on an additional myth. Students then develop their narrative writing skills as they create their own hero’s journey narrative.

    Quarter 2 Module:

    2A: Working with Evidence

     

    Title: Rules to Live By

     

    Description: How do people formulate and use “rules” to improve their lives and communicate these “rules” to others? Students consider these questions as they read a variety of texts. They begin with Bud, not Buddy, analyzing character development and considering how figurative language contributes to tone and meaning. They then read closely Steve Jobs’ speech, (focusing on how Jobs develops his ideas at the paragraph, sentence, and word level) and analyze the poem “If” to compare and contrast how the novel and the poem address a similar theme. In an argument essay, students establish a claim about how Bud uses his rules. Finally, students conduct a short research project related to their own “rules to live by” and then write an essay to inform about one important “rule to live by.”

    Quarter 3 Module:

    3A: Understanding Perspectives

     

    Title: The Land of the Golden Mountain

     

    Description: Students study how an author develops point of view and how an author’s perspective, based on his or her culture, is evident in the writing. As students read Lawrence Yep’s Dragonwings, they analyze how Yep has developed the point of view of the narrator, Moon Shadow. They also read excerpts of Yep’s biography The Lost Garden to determine how his culture and experiences have shaped his perspective as evidenced in the novel. They read accounts by people from the turn of the century in San Francisco, analyzing perspective and comparing the accounts to those in the novel. Finally, students write newspaper articles that convey multiple perspectives about life for Chinese immigrants in San Francisco in the early 1900s.

    Quarter 4 Module:

     4: Reading for Research and Writing an Argument

     

    Title: Insecticides: Costs vs. Benefits

     

    Description: Students consider the balance between human needs and environmental consequences as they read the novel Frightful’s Mountain and complex informational texts about the benefits and drawbacks of the use of DDT. They learn how to trace and evaluate an argument in written texts and videos on this topic, and conduct both supported and independent research. Through structured discussions and decision- making protocols, students form their own argument about the use of DDT. Students then apply their research to write a position paper in which they support that claim with evidence.

  • 7th Grade

    Quarter 1 Module:

    1: Reading Closely and Writing to Learn

     

    Title: Journeys and Survival

     

    Description: Students explore the experiences of people of Southern Sudan during and after the Second Sudanese Civil War. They build proficiency in using textual evidence to support ideas in their writing, both in shorter responses and in an extended essay. They read A Long Walk to Water, analyzing the points of view of the central characters, Salva and Nya. Students focus on one key theme: how individuals survive in challenging environments. The novel is paired with complex informational texts on Sudan. Students then combine research about Sudan with quotes the novel and craft a research- based two-voice poem.

    Quarter 2 Module:

    2A: Working with Evidence

     

    Title: Working Conditions

     

    Description: Students explore the issue of working conditions, historical and modern-day. They analyze how people, settings, and events interact in literary and informational texts. Students first focus on Lyddie (about a girl who works in the Lowell mills); they write an argument essay about Lyddie’s choices around joining a protest over working conditions. Then they read a speech by César Chávez (tracing how the sections of the text combine to build central claims) as they consider the role that workers, the government, and consumers play in improving working conditions. Finally, a short research project explores how businesses can affect working conditions.

    As a final performance task, students create a guide to working conditions in the garment industry.

    Quarter 3 Module:

    3: Understanding Perspectives

     

    Title: Slavery: The People Could Fly

     

    Description: This module focuses on the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, with specific attention to understanding how he uses language in powerful ways and how he tells his story in order to serve his purpose of working to abolish slavery. Students begin by building background knowledge about Douglass and his historical context. They then read closely key excerpts from his Narrative, focusing on his message as well as the author’s craft. Finally, they select one episode from the Narrative and rewrite it as a children’s story, using Frederick Douglass: The Last Day of Slavery as a mentor text.

    Quarter 4 Module:

    4A: Reading and Research

     

    Title: Screen Time and the Developing Brain

     

    Description: Students explore adolescent brain development and the effects of entertainment screen time on the brain. Students read informational texts to build background knowledge about adolescent brain development in general. Then they begin to focus on the issue of screen time and how it may affect teenagers. Students evaluate the soundness of reasoning and the sufficiency and relevancy of evidence in argument texts and media. They dive deeper into first the potential benefits and then the potential risks of screen time by participating in a robust research project. Students finish the module by writing a position paper, and creating a visual representation of their paper.

  • 8th Grade

    Quarter 1 Module:

    1: Reading Closely and Writing to Learn

     

    Title: Finding Home: Refugees

     

    Description: Students consider the challenges of fictional and real refugees. They read the novel Inside Out & Back Again, analyzing critical incidents that reveal the dynamic nature of Ha, a 10- year-old Vietnamese girl whose family flees during the fall of Saigon. They also read complex informational texts to learn more about the history of war in Vietnam, the historical context of Ha’s family’s struggle, and the universal themes of refugees’ experiences of fleeing and finding home. Students consider how Ha’s experience represents the universal refugee experience of being turned “inside out” and then coming “back again.” Students work in research groups to study the experiences of refugees from one of several cultures. Then, using the novel’s poems as mentor texts, students write free verse narrative poems that capture the universal refugee experience.

    Quarter 2 Module:

    2B: Working with Evidence (Drama)

     

    Title: A Midsummer Night’s Dream and the Comedy of Control

     

    Description: Students read and analyze Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, focusing primarily on the theme of control. Students examine why the characters seek control, how they try to control others, and the results of attempting to control others. They build background knowledge as they explore the appeal and authorship of Shakespeare and read much of the play aloud in a Drama Circle. Students analyze differences between a film version of the play and Shakespeare’s original script. They also study how Shakespeare drew upon Greek mythology as he crafted the play within the play. To conclude the module, students write a “confessional” narrative from the point of view of one of the characters in A Midsummer Night’s Dream to creatively explain his or her attempts to control or manipulate someone else in the play.

    Quarter 3 Module:

    3B: Understanding Perspectives

     

    Title: The Civil Rights Movement and the Little Rock Nine

     

    Description: Students study the U.S. civil rights movement, focusing particularly on the Little Rock Nine. They consider the question “How can stories be powerful?” as they learn about segregation, the civil rights movement, the Little Rock Nine and the role of the various mediums in shaping perceptions of events. As students read A Mighty Long Way by Carlotta Walls Lanier and a photo essay titled Little Rock Girl 1957 by Shelley Tougas, they consider the different ways in which the story of the Little Rock Nine has been told. Students build background about the history of segregation and Jim Crow laws in the United States. They analyze the role of various mediums in depicting the Little Rock Nine. Students finish the module by considering what choices an author makes when telling a story. For their final performance task, students present and reflect upon a short narrative based on an informational text and a photograph from Little Rock Girl 1957.

    Quarter 4 Module:

    4: Research, Decision-Making, and Forming Positions

     

    Title: Sustainability of World’s Food Supply

     

    Description: Students learn how to make evidence-based decisions as they consider the issue of how to best feed all the people in the United States. They analyze Michael Pollan’s arguments and evidence (as well as the arguments in other informational texts and videos) to determine whether sufficient and relevant evidence has been used to support the claim. They first read The Omnivore’s Dilemma to build background knowledge about what happens to food before it gets to the consumer, and the different choices the consumer can make when buying food. Then, students engage in a robust research project in which they investigate the consequences of each of the food chains and the stakeholders affected, and use an evidence-based process to take a position. For a culminating project, students write a position paper addressing the question: Which of Pollan’s four food chains would you choose to feed the United States? Why?